Bioclimatic architecture is that which is carried out taking into account the environmental conditions of the surroundings on which the building will be built in order to achieve a level of well-being inside the buildings with hardly any need to resort to air-conditioning systems. It is that which makes the most of natural sources of heat, light or coolness and minimises their loss through elements such as the location on the ground, orientation or insulation of its walls. Bioclimatic architecture is not something new. Traditional architecture in all countries is largely bioclimatic, as in the past houses were arranged in a way that was consistent with the environmental conditions. At that time, it was difficult, costly and illogical, if not impossible, to have air-conditioning elements, so houses were optimised to make the most of natural resources.
The resources used by bioclimatic architecture to achieve significant energy savings are
Adequate layout on the ground- In our case, the plot has a certain slope towards the south and the building has been located in the centre of it, fully exposed to solar radiation but also exposed to winds. We will alter this situation in the future with the help of the vegetation. In the northern zone we will plant a "free hedge" of conifers (evergreen) that will protect us throughout the year from the cold winds that are so frequent, and in contrast, the southern zone will have deciduous trees, thus taking advantage of the brake on sunlight that the foliage provides in summer but enjoying the sun in winter.
Passive solar architecture - That which makes the most of passive solar energy, that is to say, that which comes from the sun and arrives directly at the interior of the house through windows, in our case, a cold climate. Each room has almost 7 m2 of windows with double thermal insulating glazing which allows heat and luminosity to be captured. The sun makes a higher trajectory in summer than in winter, coinciding its extremes with the summer and winter solstices (see diagram and photos below). For this reason, the south side of the building, i.e. the rooms, have two spoilers that protrude from the wall, so that in winter the sun projects onto the walls, heating them and in summer the spoilers prevent it from penetrating, keeping the rooms cool.
Wall insulation - Using appropriate materials, heat loss through the walls is kept to a minimum. For example, the heat gained through passive solar energy is retained inside the house and is not lost. The thickness of the walls is also important as they act as a thermal mass to help temper the temperatures inside the house in very extreme climates. We explain in detail the walls of the building in "healthy materials".
Adequate layout of the rooms - Usually, the rooms of greatest use are located in the southern area, in a house so it is logical to locate the living room and common rooms. But in our case, and thinking about the clients, the rooms are the ones that occupy this privileged place, in addition, thanks to the design of the plot, it allows us to provide them with a wooden terrace also oriented to the south and its own garden. The common areas such as the dining room, and the living room are located to the north, with small windows on the north side but with large windows on the south side that keep them bright, thus also reducing the consumption of electricity for lighting. On the other hand, in moments of excessive heat, air currents can be achieved to cool down the atmosphere of the interior.